The most recent EU-enlargements have considerably increased the number of small member states. In the EU-27, 19 countries have fewer votes in the Council of Ministers than the EU-average. These small states face a series of size-related disadvantages in day-to-day EU negotiations. Against this backdrop the book asks: are some small states better at coping with structural disadvantages than others? How active are small states in participating in day-to-day EU negotiations and why do some states use negotiation strategies more frequently than others? Under which conditions are the different negotiation strategies effective and when can small states punch above their weight? Based on more than 100 interviews with policy-makers and an analysis of a unique database on the negotiation activities of EU member states, this book explains how active participation is essential for the shaping success of small states and shows that small states are more influential with persuasion-based rather than bargaining-based strategies. Two case studies on the pesticides and the spirit drinks regulations further reveal that persuasion strategies are especially effective if the arguments match the nature of the issue at stake and resonate well with prior beliefs of addressees. No other study comprehensively analyzes small states in a comparative perspective, examines their activity levels in EU negotiations and outlines which conditions are needed for the effectiveness of a broad range of strategies. An indispensable resource for students and researchers interested in how and under which conditions small states can influence policies in negotiations beyond the nation-state.
Diana Panke, University College Dublin, Ireland
'In this important and insightful volume, the author combines qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse the negotiation strategies and the influence of small EU member-states. It is the first major work to investigate the activities of all small EU members, including the states of the latest accession rounds. It does an excellent job in offering comprehensive insights into small state behaviour and an understanding of their degree of success and deserves a wide readership.' Ole ElgstrÃ¶m, Lund University, Sweden 'Diana Panke's comprehensive study of the negotiating capacity of small states is required reading for Europeanists, scholars in comparative policy analysis and international relations. The small, through active negotiation strategies, expertise, positioning, mediating, persuasion and lobbying, can and do shape EU policy formation. The detailed case studies in lesser known policy areas (vodka, pesticides) demonstrate distinctions between Danish, Swedish, Irish and Belgian patterns of engagement vs. Greece, Portugal, Bulgaria and Slovenia. Panke advances our collective understanding of the role of the smaller powers in regional governance structures, and her work makes a significant contribution to the literature by tracing how EU policy making outcomes are negotiated.' Christine Ingebritsen, University of Washington, USA 'That the EU can empower smaller member-states is a generally poorly understood fact. Diana Panke provides a superb analysis of when and how this happens and the importance of their persuasion power. A must read for all those interested in the relationship between, power, interests and ideas in the EU.' Kalypso NicolaÃ¯dis, University of Oxford, UK 'All in all, Diana Panke’s intervention is indeed a welcome addition to the IR and Europeanist literature in state negotiations in International/Regional Organisations. ... Through a most comprehensive approach, Panke demonstrates empirically how small EU member states can follow neg