Pressure groups are an important influence on modern politics, with people feeling strongly about single issues, willing to protest, lobby and petition for their cause.
Table of ContentsForeword Introduction 1. What are pressure groups? Defining pressure groups Pressure groups and the political system Types of pressure group Pressure politics Primary and secondary groups Pressure group targets in British politics Pressure groups and democracy Summary Further reading 2. Pressure groups since 1945 Phase (1) 1945 1960 Phase (2) 1960 1979 Phase (3) 1979 1997 Current trends and prospects: pressure groups and New Labour Summary Further reading 3. Pressure groups and Europe The expansion of Euro lobbying Strategies of Euro lobbying Organising to lobby the European Union Targets for group influence in the European Union Strategies of lobbying towards the Council of Ministers The impact of organised interests on EU policy-making Policy networks in the European Union Summary Further reading 4. Pressure groups and government The influence of the political system on pressure group activity Pressure groups and government Government group consultation: a matter of mutual advantage Policy networks Think-tanks and government policy The professional lobbying industry Summary Further reading 5. Pressure groups and parliament The continuing significance of parliament Groups use of parliament The House of Lords The representation of outside interests in the House of Commons Outside interests in the House of Lords MPs and outside interests Summary Further reading 6. Pressure groups and public campaigns Public campaigning in the 1990s Protest, participation and political culture Direct action protest Groups use of the media in public campaigns Groups use of the courts Groups and campaigns targeting political parties Local government and politics Summary Further reading 7. Pressure groups and the policy process: effectiveness, influence and resources Pressure group resources The external environment Assessing the influence of groups: a cautionary note Summary Further reading 8. Pressure groups, pluralism and democracy Modern liberal democracy Pressure groups and participation Pressure groups and pluralism Reformed pluralism: policy networks and policy communities Pressure groups, opposition and countervailing power Trade unions and the Blair Government Summary Further reading Bibliography Index