Micronutrients and HIV Infection  book cover
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Micronutrients and HIV Infection




ISBN 9780849300851
Published September 14, 2001 by CRC Press
272 Pages - 36 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Analogous to other infections, evidence suggests that improved micronutrient intake may reduce HIV transmission and progression, as well as morbidity from common and opportunistic infections. This is important information, considering many in the world's HIV-infected population do not yet have access to anti-retroviral drugs. Micronutrients and HIV Infection presents current knowledge on the role of micronutrients in HIV and other infections - knowledge that can be used to improve case management and public health interventions.

The book provides a comprehensive overview of micronutrients and HIV infection through a review of recently published human studies and intervention trials and other important epidemiology based literature. It begins by introducing the malnutrition-infection complex, Nutritionally Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and the role of oxidative stress in infection. Then the book covers the history, biochemistry, biological functions, and food sources of individual micronutrients, and reviews their roles in host defense and resistance to infections in general, and HIV in particular. Finally, the book discusses how this information can be applied for the benefit of individuals with HIV and countries where HIV is widespread and treatment unavailable.

Most of the world's 35 million people living with HIV are micronutrient deficient and have little access to HIV testing, counseling, and care. In addition to covering specific micronutrients, Micronutrients and HIV Infection presents a critical review of how existing micronutrient interventions can be promoted, expanded, and modified to reduce the magnitude and impact of the HIV pandemic.

Table of Contents

MICRONUTRIENTS AND INFECTIONS: AN INTRODUCTION
Micronutrients and Infections
Micronutrient Requirements
Global Nutritional Situation
Micronutrients during the HIV Pandemic


NUTRITIONALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES
Host Defensive Mechanisms Impaired by NAIDS
Varieties of NAIDS
Future Studies in Nutritional Immunology

OXIDATIVE STRESS AND INFECTIONS
Generation of ROS
Role of ROS
Damage from Excessive Production of ROS
Antioxination Defense System
Evidence of Oxidatives Stress during Viral Infections

VITAMIN A, CAROTENOIDS, AND HIV INFECTION
Historical Background
Epidemiology
Metabolism
Biological Functions of Vitamin A and Carotenoids
Pathophysiology of Vitamin A Deficiency
Assessment of Vitamin A and Carotenoid Status
Prevention of Vitamin A Deficiency
Conclusions

B VITAMINS AND HIV INFECTION
History, Biological Functions, Dietary Sources, and Dietary Requirements
Immune Function
HIV Infection
Conclusions

VITAMINS C AND E, AND HIV INFECTION
Vitamin C
Vitamin C and the Common Cold
Vitamin C Deficiency and HIV Infection
Vitamin E
Vitamin E Deficiency and HIV Infection
Conclusion

IRON AND HIV INFECTION
Historical Background
Iron Balance
Iron and HIV Infection
Iron and Opportunistic Infections
Perspectives and Conclusions

ZINC AND HIV INFECTION
Historical Background
Metabolism and Biological Functions
Assessment of Status
Dietary Requirements and Food Sources
Host Defense
Infection
HIV Infection

SELENIUM AND HIV INFECTION
Historical Background
Metabolism and Biological Functions
Assessment of Status
Dietary Requirements and Food Sources
Host Defense and Infections
HIV Infection
Perspectives and Conclusions

MICRONUTRIENTS IN THE CASE MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTION
Micronutrient Deficiencies in HIV Infection
Micronutrient Interventions
Case Management Strategies
Unresolved Issues

MICRONUTRIENT INTERVENTIONS AND THE HIV PANDEMIC
Micronutrients of Importance to HIV Infection
Multiple Micronutrient Deficiencies and Interactions
Determinants of Micronutrient Deficiencies
Micronutrient Interventions
Research Priorities
Conclusion

Note: Each Chapter includes an Introduction and References

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Reviews

"Nineteen authors from 6 countries, 11 of them with medical degrees, contributed the 11 chapters (citing 1009 references) of this very readable and well-edited book. …For a multi-authored volume, Micronutrients and HIV Infection has remarkably and refreshingly little redundancy. Moreover, some authors discuss the adverse consequences of excessive nutrient exposure on the course of HIV and opportunistic infections and the nutrient-nutrient interactions that can arise from nutrient interventions. The book also offers some priceless teaching illustrations."
- Noel W. Solomons and Monica Orozco in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 25