3rd Edition

Ion Mobility Spectrometry

ISBN 9781138199484
Published November 16, 2016 by CRC Press
444 Pages 155 B/W Illustrations

USD $90.95

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Book Description

Since the turn of the twenty-first century, applications of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) have diversified, expanding their utility in the military and security spheres and entering the realms of clinical practice and pharmaceutical exploration. Updated and expanded, the third edition of Ion Mobility Spectrometry begins with a comprehensive discussion of the fundamental theory and practice of IMS. Divided into four sections—Overview, Technology, Fundamentals, and Applications—the authors treat innovations and advances in all aspects of IMS in a fresh, thorough, and revised format.


  • Introduces the definitions, theory, and practice of IMS and summarizes its history from the beginnings of the study of ions to present commercial and scholarly activities
  • Presents the technology of IMS from a measurement perspective—covering inlet through ion formation, ion injection, electric fields, drift tube structures, and detectors
  • Covers the end results of measurement, the mobility spectrum, and the transformative trend of ion mobility: mass spectrometry
  • Discusses the influence on the experimental parameters on the mobility of ions

Mobility-based methods are no longer restricted to volatile substances and indeed the many benefits of this technology—simplicity, convenience, and the low cost of technology—have become recognized as meritorious in a wide range of uses. This is also true for the advantages of measurements—high speed, distinctive spectral features, and operation in ambient pressure with thermalized ions. Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Third Edition serves specialists in the field of IMS who are interested in the potential of recent developments and researchers, engineers, and students who want a comprehensive overview of this technology.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Ion Mobility Spectrometry
Methods of Ion Mobility Spectrometry
Emerging Patterns in the Development of Ion Mobility Methods Summary Comments

History of Ion Mobility Spectrometry
The Formative Years of Discovery (1895 to 1960)
Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Chemical Measurements (1960 to 1990)
Mobility Methods beyond Military and Security Venues (1990 to 2000)
Commercial Production of Mobility-Based Analyzers (2000 to Present)
The Society for Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Journal

Sample Introduction Methods
Vapor Samples
Semi-volatile Samples
Aqueous Samples
Solid Samples

Ion Sources
Radioactivity: Nickel, Americium, and Tritium
Corona Discharges
Photo-ionization: Discharge Lamps and Lasers
Electrospray Ionization and Its Derivatives
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization
Surface Ionization Sources
Plasma-Based Ion Sources
Glow Discharge Ion Source
Other Ion Sources

Ion Injection and Pulsed Sources
Operation and Structures of Ion Shutters
Models and Modes of Operation
Ion Injection to Drift Regions without Wire-Based Ion Shutters
Mobility Methods with Continuous Flow of Ions into the Drift Region
Summary and Conclusions

Drift Tubes in Ion Mobility Spectrometry
Traditional Drift Tubes with Stacked-Ring Designs
High Field Asymmetric Drift Tubes
Aspirator Drift Tubes
Traveling Wave Drift Tubes
Tandem Mobility Spectrometers
Other Drift Tube Designs
Selection of Materials
Summary and Conclusions

Ion Detectors
Ambient Detection of Mobility-Separated Ions
Low-Pressure Detection of Mobility-Separated Ions

The Ion Mobility Spectrum
Mobility, Electric Field, and Pressure
Ion Mobility Spectra
IMS as a Separation Device
Quantitative Aspects to Response

Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry
Combining Mobility with Mass
Low-Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry Atmospheric Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry
Aspiration Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry
Ion Mobility MS and the Future

Ion Characterization and Separation: Mobility of Gas Phase Ions in Electric Fields
Motion of Slow Ions in Gases
Models for Ion-Neutral Interactions
Linear Ion Mobility Spectrometers: Models and Experimental Evidence
Differential Mobility Spectrometer and the Dependence of Ion Mobility on the Electric Field Strength
Traveling Wave IMS

Control and Effects of Experimental Parameters
Chemical Composition of the Support Gas Atmosphere
Moisture and Temperature of the Supporting Gas Atmosphere
Effects of Pressure
Effects of Field Strength and Ion Residence Time
Effects of Analyte Concentration

Detection of Explosives by IMS
General Comments on Detection of Explosives
The Chemistry Underlying Detection of Explosives by IMS
Sampling and Pre-concentration Techniques for Detection of Explosives
Measurement with Handheld Devices, Portable Instruments, and Portals
Research and Operational Experience
Walk-Through Portals and Systems for Luggage Screening
Homemade and Alternate Explosives
Standards for Calibration of Explosive Detectors
Database for Explosives

Chemical Weapons
Introduction and General Comments on Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents
The Ion Chemistry Underlying Detection of Chemical Weapons
Sampling and Pre-concentration Techniques
Research, Operational Experience, and Historical Perspective of Instrumentation
State-of-the-Art Commercial Instruments, Standards, and Calibration

Drugs of Abuse
Introduction and General Comments on Detection of Drugs
The Ion Chemistry Underlying Detection of Drugs
Sampling and Pre-concentration Techniques
Research, Operational Experience, and Instrumentation
Standards and Calibration
Database for Drugs

Compound Identification
Formulation Validation
Cleaning Validation
Reaction Monitoring
Monitoring Biological Samples
Summary and Conclusion

Industrial Applications
Industrial Processes
Industrial Feedstock or Products
Food Production

Environmental Monitoring
Airborne Vapors

Biological and Medical Applications of IMS
Introduction and General Comments on Biological and Medical Applications
Medical Diagnostics Using IMS
Food Freshness, Molds, and Odor Detection
Macromolecules: Biomolecules and Biopolymers
Detection and Determination of Bacteria
Other Biological Applications

Current Assessments and Future Developments in Ion Mobility Spectrometry
State of the Science and Technology of IMS
Next Generation in Ion Mobility Methods
Directions for IMS
Final Thoughts

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G.A. Eiceman is a professor at New Mexico University in Las Cruces.

Z. Karpas is an associate at the Nuclear Research Center in Beer-Shev, Israel.

Herbert H. Hill is a professor at Washington State University in Pullman.


"… an excellent book and essential for every researcher and engineer working in the field of ion mobility. The authors, who are leading experts in IMS technology, provide an excellent overview of the current state of science and technology related to IMS and the most recent developments in this field. … well written and easily understandable, with a well-balanced mix of practice-oriented information and theoretical background knowledge."
—Thomas Mayer, Department of Monitoring and Exploration Technologies, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany, from International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry, December 2014

Praise for the Previous Edition

"... The second edition of this book provides a timely update to the fundamental theory, advancements in instrumentation, and the development of new applications of IMS.... The book accomplishes the objectives outlined by the authors... The CD [is] a useful and practical addition to this book... Overall, this book should be useful to experts in IMS research as well as those new to the technology. As a practical book, it offers a well-balanced combination of theory and application... I highly recommend it to anyone interested in IMS."
—Robert G. Ewing, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, in JACS, Vol. 128, 2006